House and Home

Numerous buildings are captured within National Museums NI’s extensive photographic collections. Among these are images of people’s homes. Some of these photographs were commissioned with this purpose, while in others, houses appear incidentally. Most were captured in the north of Ireland, but display a wide range of dwellings, from country cottages and inner city slums to suburban homes and castles.

As well as recording housing over the course of many decades, these collections cross urban- rural and class divides. Some were taken to showcase luxury, while others were taken to record poor housing due for demolition.

As representations of how and where people lived, they are a means of exploring local social and cultural history.

Robert Welch, Bangor Castle; Victorian interior. BELUM.Y.W.05.15.44. © National Museums Northern Ireland

Bangor Castle

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A.R. Hogg, Mitchell's Court, off Brown Square/Gardiner Street, lower Shankill area, 1912. BELUM.Y2475. © National Museums Northern Ireland

Belfast Slums

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W.A. Green, Sans Souci Park, Belfast. HOYFM.WAG.3800. © National Museums Northern Ireland

Middle Class Suburbs

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Bigger Collection, shawled woman at doorway of rope thatched house. BELUM.Y10267 © National Museums Northern Ireland

The Rural Cottage

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A.R. Hogg, Campbell, Drennan and Co. Ltd., no. 36. Wholesale furniture and bedding manufacturers. Window display. 1935. BELUM.Y2126 © National Museums Northern Ireland

The Ideal Home

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Robert Welch, Belfast Charitable Institution (formerly Poor House, now Clifton House). BELUM.Y.W.10.35.11 © National Museums Northern Ireland

The Poor House

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Bangor Castle

Constructed in 1852 for Robert Edward Ward, a descendant of the third son of the first Viscount Bangor, the building was later inherited by his only daughter, Matilda Catherine Maud (Lady Clanmorris), who married the 5th Baron Clanmorris. Lady Clanmorris retained possession of Bangor Castle until her death in 1941, when the building and 150 acres of park land were sold to Bangor Borough Council for £35,000.[1]

These photographs, taken by Robert Welch show the interior and exterior of the Castle. While undated, they were most likely taken between 1910 and 1930, during which time the house was inhabited by the Clanmorris family. These images convey the grandeur and opulence of the home, while recording intricate, personal details of ornaments and furnishings.

Photographs of Carrowdore Castle, Dublin Castle, Stormont Castle, Castle Shean/ Jordan’s Castle and Quintin Castle can also be found within National Museums NI’s digitised photographic collections.

[1] Information taken from a report by Sandra Millsopp at www.bangorhistoricalsocietyni.org

Image: Robert Welch, Bangor Castle; Victorian interior. BELUM.Y.W.05.15.44. © National Museums Northern Ireland
Robert Welch, Bangor Castle; Victorian interior. BELUM.Y.W.05.15.44. © National Museums Northern Ireland
Image: Robert Welch, Bangor Castle; Victorian interior. BELUM.Y.W.05.15.45. © National Museums Northern Ireland
Robert Welch, Bangor Castle; Victorian interior. BELUM.Y.W.05.15.45. © National Museums Northern Ireland
Image: Robert Welsh, Bangor Castle. BELUM.Y.W.05.15.41. © National Museums Northern Ireland
Robert Welsh, Bangor Castle. BELUM.Y.W.05.15.41. © National Museums Northern Ireland

 

Belfast Slums

Between 1912 and 1915 Alexander Hogg (1870-1939) took over 200 photographs for Belfast Corporation of housing that was due for demolition under the Belfast improvement Order of 1910. Some of these images are contained in National Museums NI’s photographic archive. As well as providing a record of poor quality, inner-city housing, many capture people, mainly women and children. Much of this housing was occupied by those employed in the city’s industries, including Belfast ship yard, and the local linen mills.

Image: A.R. Hogg, Mitchell's Court, off Brown Square/Gardiner Street, lower Shankill area, 1912. BELUM.Y2475. © National Museums Northern Ireland
A.R. Hogg, Mitchell's Court, off Brown Square/Gardiner Street, lower Shankill area, 1912. BELUM.Y2475. © National Museums Northern Ireland
Image: A.R. Hogg, Hope’s Court c.1912. BELUM.Y8541. © National Museums Northern Ireland
A.R. Hogg, Hope’s Court c.1912. BELUM.Y8541. © National Museums Northern Ireland
Image: A.R. Hogg, group at Boundary Street area, 1912 BELUM.Y8522. © National Museums Northern Ireland
A.R. Hogg, group at Boundary Street area, 1912 BELUM.Y8522. © National Museums Northern Ireland

 

Middle Class Suburbs

Historian Alice Johnson explains that ‘Upward mobility of the Belfast elite was symbolised by moving house: the mid-century saw Belfast’s growing suburbs on the Malone Ridge and Antrim Road attract more and more people away from the traditional bourgeois streets of Donegal Place and College Square’.[2] These photographs taken by W.A. Green (1870-1958) represent some of the homes that were built in the wave of middle-class suburban development.

[2] Alice Johnson, ‘Middle-class culture and civic identity in mid-nineteenth century Belfast’, Irish Economic and Social History, xxxvii (2010), p. 75.

Image: W.A. Green, Sans Souci Park, Belfast. HOYFM.WAG.3800. © National Museums Northern Ireland
W.A. Green, Sans Souci Park, Belfast. HOYFM.WAG.3800. © National Museums Northern Ireland
Image: W.A. Green, elevated view of Kingsmere Avenue, Cliftonville Gardens. HOYFM.WAG.3751 © National Museums Northern Ireland
W.A. Green, elevated view of Kingsmere Avenue, Cliftonville Gardens. HOYFM.WAG.3751 © National Museums Northern Ireland

 

The Rural Cottage

Many images of rural living, which stand in great contrast to the city’s slums and suburbs are also held in the collections. While Belfast had become an industrial city, most of Ulster, and Ireland, was predominantly rural. These photographs may be reflective of how many people lived. However, when viewing these photographs, one must remember the photographers who took them knew what images appealed to commercial audiences. They had interests in recording old rural craft and customs, Irish ethnography and creating idyllic picture postcards.[3]

[3] W.A. Maguire, A Century in Focus: Photography and photographers in the North of Ireland 1839-1939 (Belfast, pp, 86-118).

Image: Bigger Collection, shawled woman at doorway of rope thatched house. BELUM.Y10267 © National Museums Northern Ireland
Bigger Collection, shawled woman at doorway of rope thatched house. BELUM.Y10267 © National Museums Northern Ireland
Image: W.A. Green, interior of Irish handloom weaver’s cottage, Co. Armagh. HOYFM.WAG.282 © National Museums Northern Ireland
W.A. Green, interior of Irish handloom weaver’s cottage, Co. Armagh. HOYFM.WAG.282 © National Museums Northern Ireland
Image: W.A. Green, Irish Cottage Industries, Hand Embroidery on Linen in the Ards. HOYFM.WAG.294 © National Museums Northern Ireland
W.A. Green, Irish Cottage Industries, Hand Embroidery on Linen in the Ards. HOYFM.WAG.294 © National Museums Northern Ireland
Image: James Glass, view of Gweedore dwelling with family at the door, 1870s. BELUM.Y39039.19 © National Museums Northern Ireland
James Glass, view of Gweedore dwelling with family at the door, 1870s. BELUM.Y39039.19 © National Museums Northern Ireland

 

The Ideal Home

As well as recording homes that were lived in, photographs reflect homes that were desired, or idealised. A number of images pertain to décor and furnishings that epitomised the ideal of the middle-class home in interwar Northern Ireland, and are reflective of trends in conspicuous consumption.

Image: A.R. Hogg, Campbell, Drennan and Co. Ltd., no. 36. Wholesale furniture and bedding manufacturers. Window display. 1935. BELUM.Y2126 © National Museums Northern Ireland
A.R. Hogg, Campbell, Drennan and Co. Ltd., no. 36. Wholesale furniture and bedding manufacturers. Window display. 1935. BELUM.Y2126 © National Museums Northern Ireland
Image: A.R. Hogg, Ideal Homes Exhibition, Kings Hall, Belfast, 1936. BELUM.Y3774 © National Museums Northern Ireland
A.R. Hogg, Ideal Homes Exhibition, Kings Hall, Belfast, 1936. BELUM.Y3774 © National Museums Northern Ireland

 

The Poor House

Due to finance or circumstance, many were unable to rent or own private dwellings. A number of organisations were able to provide poor and destitute individuals with a place to stay. These included the Poor House (Clifton House) run by Belfast Charitable Society, and Carrick House, a ‘working men's hotel' set up by Belfast Corporation.

Image: Robert Welch, Belfast Charitable Institution (formerly Poor House, now Clifton House). BELUM.Y.W.10.35.11 © National Museums Northern Ireland
Robert Welch, Belfast Charitable Institution (formerly Poor House, now Clifton House). BELUM.Y.W.10.35.11 © National Museums Northern Ireland
Image: A.R. Hogg, Carrick House. Interior. Poor man at kiosk. c.1907. BELUM.Y2455 © National Museums Northern Ireland
A.R. Hogg, Carrick House. Interior. Poor man at kiosk. c.1907. BELUM.Y2455 © National Museums Northern Ireland
Image: A.R Hogg, Carrick House. Interior. c.1907. BELUM.Y2457 © National Museums Northern Ireland
A.R Hogg, Carrick House. Interior. c.1907. BELUM.Y2457 © National Museums Northern Ireland